- is situated in the Northern Hemisphere, northern part/half of North America. Canada borders (on) the USA in the south, the Atlantic Ocean in the east, the     Pacific Ocean in the west and the Arctic Ocean in the north

- size: 9,984,670 km2 (3,854,085 sq mi) – the world´s second largest country after Russia

- the population is about 37,602,000 people

- it’s constitutional monarchy, head: the Queen, represented by the Governor General; parliamentary democracy

- official languages: English (most inhabitants) and French

- capital city: Ottawa

- flag: is also known as the Maple Leaf – a red flag with a white square in its centre – a stylized 11-pointed red maple leaf (There is symbolism in both the design and the colors of the national flag of Canada – the colors are meant to symbolize hope and prosperity, as well as peace, tranquility and neutrality

- the maple leaf design represents the cultural heritage of the nation and the natural resources of Canada)


- West of the country is mainly mountainous (the Rockies, the McKenzie Mountains, the St. Elias Mountains, the Coast Mountains); highest peak: Mount       Logan (5,959 m (19,551 ft, in the St. Elias Mountains)), second highest mountain in North America

- central parts, north and east – mainly flat (exceptions include eg the Innuitian Mountains)

- most surface in central and western parts is covered with forest(s) – maples common, typical features also include the prairie (a flat area without many trees) and the tundra



- The Mackenzie (4,241 km) … → the Beaufort Sea

- The Yukon (3,185 km) … → the Pacific Ocean (via Alaska)

- The St. Lawrence 3,058 km; 1,900 mi) including the Great Lakes… → the Atlantic Ocean


Lakes: more than 31,700 lakes

- the Great Lakes (Superior largest of all)

- Great Bear Lake

- Great Slave Lake

- Lake Winnipeg



- 1583 – first English colony (Newfoundland)

- around 1600…first French settlements around the St Lawrence River (1608 – Quebec) → a lot of tension between the French and the English → the Seven  Years´ War (1756 – 1763): the French lost

- 1867 the Constitution Act created a federal dominion

- dominion of Canada = originally a federation of four provinces – Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 1931 – Statute of Westminster (act of British Parliament which made former British colonies legislatively independent)

- 1982 – the Canada Act (act of British Parliament which enabled Canadian Parliament to add amendments to its constitution* without previous consent   (=předchozí souhlas) of British Parliament) * Canada´s constitution is a combination of documents and tradition (which is something between the US and   Britain)



- Torronto is the largest city – University of Torronto – Josef Škvorecký used to teach American literatury there

- Montreal, Notre Dame Basilica

- City of Quebec – a historic city, the centre of the French speaking community the only city in North America surrounded by fortifications, the Chateau   Frontenac was originally the site was the residence of British governors, now it is the most photographed hotel in the world

- Ottawa – capital city, on the Ottawa River, seat of Parliament

- Vancouver – an important city on the west coast named after Captain George Vancouver, English navigator • an important port and industrial and business   centre • the 2010 Winter Olympics were held in Vancouver

- Niagara Falls (= three waterfalls on the border with the US, located on the Niagara River)

- Banff /bænf/ National Park (Canada´s oldest national park in the Rocky Mountains


Provinces (10): Alberta, British Columbia, Quebec, Manitoba, New Brunswick, New Foundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,   Saskatchewan

Territories (3): Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon

Za správnost a původ studijních materiálů neručíme.